Income Tax is a levy on personal income collected by HMRC to fund public services. The rate changes depending on how much you earn.
Income Tax must be paid on any income earned above the Personal Allowance. The rate of tax you pay depends on the tax band you fall in. Income Tax is a Marginal Tax. For the 2023/24 Tax Year, Basic Rate (£12,571 - £50,270) is at 20%, Higher Rate (£50,271-£125,140) is at 40% and Additional Rate (£125,141+) is at 45%. You can lose your Personal Allowance as your income increases.
Most people pay Income Tax through PAYE, where your Tax Code tells employers how much of your salary to deduct for tax payments. A Self Assessment may be required for other forms on income like Self-employed profits.
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